Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Washington, Pa. Birth: Washington, Pa. Date of issue: 22 April 1896. Citation: Voluntarily led a detached brigade in an assault upon the enemy's works.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Ann Arbor, Mich. Born: 1839, Ireland. Date of issue: 28 April 1896. Citation: In a charge by the 14th Michigan Infantry against the entrenched enemy was the first man over the line of works of the enemy, and demanded and received the surrender of Confederate Gen. Daviel Govan and his command.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company A, 74th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Warsaw, Ind. Birth: Seneca County, Ohio. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 8th and 19th Arkansas (C.S.A.).
MATTINGLY, HENRY B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 10th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Marion County, Ky. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th and 7th Arkansas Infantry (C.S.A.).
RYAN, THOMAS JOHN
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Yokohama, Japan, 1 September 1923. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 5 August 1901, New Orleans, La. Citation: For heroism in effecting the rescue of a woman from the burning Grand Hotel, Yokohama, Japan, on 1 September 1923. Following the earthquake and fire which occurred in Yokohama on 1 September, Ens. Ryan, with complete disregard for his own life, extricated a woman from the Grand Hotel, thus saving her life. His heroic conduct upon this occasion reflects the greatest credit on himself and on the U.S. Navy, of which he is a part. (Medal presented by President Coolidge at the White House on 15 March 1924.)
*HENRY, FREDERICK F.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Vicinity of Am-Dong, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Clinton, Okla. Birth: Vian, Okla. G.O. No.: 8, 16 February 1951. Citation: 1st Lt. Henry, Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. His platoon was holding a strategic ridge near the town when they were attacked by a superior enemy force, supported by heavy mortar and artillery fire. Seeing his platoon disorganized by this fanatical assault, he left his foxhole and moving along the line ordered his men to stay in place and keep firing. Encouraged by this heroic action the platoon reformed a defensive line and rained devastating fire on the enemy, checking its advance. Enemy fire had knocked out all communications and 1st Lt. Henry was unable to determine whether or not the main line of resistance was altered to this heavy attack. On his own initiative, although severely wounded, he decided to hold his position as long as possible and ordered the wounded evacuated and their weapons and ammunition brought to him. Establishing a l-man defensive position, he ordered the platoon's withdrawal and despite his wound and with complete disregard for himself remained behind to cover the movement. When last seen he was single-handedly firing all available weapons so effectively that he caused an estimated 50 enemy casualties. His ammunition was soon expended and his position overrun, but this intrepid action saved the platoon and halted the enemy's advance until the main line of resistance was prepared to throw back the attack. 1st Lt. Henry's outstanding gallantry and noble self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
KOUMA, ERNEST R.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant (then Sfc.) U.S. Army, Company A, 72d Tank Battalion. Place and date: Vicinity of Agok, Korea, 31 August and 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Dwight, Nebr. Born: 23 November 1919, Dwight, Nebr. G.O. No.: 38, 4 June 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Kouma, a tank commander in Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His unit was engaged in supporting infantry elements on the Naktong River front. Near midnight on 31 August, a hostile force estimated at 500 crossed the river and launched a fierce attack against the infantry positions, inflicting heavy casualties. A withdrawal was ordered and his armored unit was given the mission of covering the movement until a secondary position could be established. The enemy assault overran 2 tanks, destroyed 1 and forced another to withdraw. Suddenly M/Sgt. Kouma discovered that his tank was the only obstacle in the path of the hostile onslaught. Holding his ground, he gave fire orders to his crew and remained in position throughout the night, fighting off repeated enemy attacks. During 1 fierce assault, the enemy surrounded his tank and he leaped from the armored turret, exposing himself to a hail of hostile fire, manned the .50 caliber machine gun mounted on the rear deck, and delivered pointblank fire into the fanatical foe. His machine gun emptied, he fired his pistol and threw grenades to keep the enemy from his tank. After more than 9 hours of constant combat and close-in fighting, he withdrew his vehicle to friendly lines. During the withdrawal through 8 miles of hostile territory, M/Sgt. Kouma continued to inflict casualties upon the enemy and exhausted his ammunition in destroying 3 hostile machine gun positions. During this action, M/Sgt. Kouma killed an estimated 250 enemy soldiers. His magnificent stand allowed the infantry sufficient time to reestablish defensive positions. Rejoining his company, although suffering intensely from his wounds, he attempted to resupply his tank and return to the battle area. While being evacuated for medical treatment, his courage was again displayed when he requested to return to the front. M/Sgt. Kouma's superb leadership, heroism, and intense devotion to duty reflect the highest credit on himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
*SMITH, DAVID M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Livingston, Ky. Born: 10 November 1926, Livingston, Ky. G.O. No.: 78, 21 August 1952. Citation: Pfc. Smith, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action. Pfc. Smith was a gunner in the mortar section of Company E, emplaced in rugged mountainous terrain and under attack by a numerically superior hostile force. Bitter fighting ensued and the enemy overran forward elements, infiltrated the perimeter, and rendered friendly positions untenable. The mortar section was ordered to withdraw, but the enemy had encircled and closed in on the position. Observing a grenade lobbed at his emplacement, Pfc. Smith shouted a warning to his comrades and, fully aware of the odds against him, flung himself upon it and smothered the explosion with his body. Although mortally wounded in this display of valor, his intrepid act saved 5 men from death or serious injury. Pfc. Smith's inspirational conduct and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory on himself and are in keeping with the noble traditions of the infantry of the U.S. Army.
*STORY, LUTHER H.
Rank and organization Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Agok, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Georgia. Born: 20 July 1931, Buena Vista, Ga. G.O. No.: 70, 2 August 1951. Citation: Pfc. Story, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. A savage daylight attack by elements of 3 enemy divisions penetrated the thinly held lines of the 9th Infantry. Company A beat off several banzai attacks but was bypassed and in danger of being cut off and surrounded. Pfc. Story, a weapons squad leader, was heavily engaged in stopping the early attacks and had just moved his squad to a position overlooking the Naktong River when he observed a large group of the enemy crossing the river to attack Company A. Seizing a machine gun from his wounded gunner he placed deadly fire on the hostile column killing or wounding an estimated 100 enemy soldiers. Facing certain encirclement the company commander ordered a withdrawal. During the move Pfc. Story noticed the approach of an enemy truck loaded with troops and towing an ammunition trailer. Alerting his comrades to take cover he fearlessly stood in the middle of the road, throwing grenades into the truck. Out of grenades he crawled to his squad, gathered up additional grenades and again attacked the vehicle. During the withdrawal the company was attacked by such superior numbers that it was forced to deploy in a rice field. Pfc. Story was wounded in this action, but, disregarding his wounds, rallied the men about him and repelled the attack. Realizing that his wounds would hamper his comrades he refused to retire to the next position but remained to cover the company's withdrawal. When last seen he was firing every weapon available and fighting off another hostile assault. Private Story's extraordinary heroism, aggressive leadership, and supreme devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and were in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
*TURNER, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, 2d Reconnaissance Company, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 10, 16 February 1951. Citation: Sfc. Turner distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A large enemy force launched a mortar and automatic weapon supported assault against his platoon. Sfc. Turner, a section leader, quickly organized his unit for defense and then observed that the attack was directed at the tank section 100 yards away. Leaving his secured section he dashed through a hail of fire to the threatened position and, mounting a tank, manned the exposed turret machine gun. Disregarding the intense enemy fire he calmly held this position delivering deadly accurate fire and pointing out targets for the tank's 75mm. gun. His action resulted in the destruction of 7 enemy machine gun nests. Although severely wounded he remained at the gun shouting encouragement to his comrades. During the action the tank received over 50 direct hits; the periscopes and antenna were shot away and 3 rounds hit the machine gun mount. Despite this fire he remained at his post until a burst of enemy fire cost him his life. This intrepid and heroic performance enabled the platoon to withdraw and later launch an attack which routed the enemy. Sfc. Turner's valor and example reflect the highest credit upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
*JONES, WILLIAM A., III
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Air Force, 602d Special Operations Squadron, Nakon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. Place and date: Near Dong Hoi, North Vietnam, 1 September 1968. Entered service at: Charlottesville, Va. Born: 31 May 1922, Norfolk, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Col. Jones distinguished himself as the pilot of an A-1H Skyraider aircraft near Dong Hoi, North Vietnam. On that day, as the on-scene commander in the attempted rescue of a downed U.S. pilot, Col. Jones' aircraft was repeatedly hit by heavy and accurate antiaircraft fire. On one of his low passes, Col. Jones felt an explosion beneath his aircraft and his cockpit rapidly filled with smoke. With complete disregard of the possibility that his aircraft might still be burning, he unhesitatingly continued his search for the downed pilot. On this pass, he sighted the survivor and a multiple-barrel gun position firing at him from near the top of a karst formation. He could not attack the gun position on that pass for fear he would endanger the downed pilot. Leaving himself exposed to the gun position, Col. Jones attacked the position with cannon and rocket fire on 2 successive passes. On his second pass, the aircraft was hit with multiple rounds of automatic weapons fire. One round impacted the Yankee Extraction System rocket mounted directly behind the headrest, igniting the rocket. His aircraft was observed to burst into flames in the center fuselage section, with flames engulfing the cockpit area. He pulled the extraction handle, jettisoning the canopy. The influx of fresh air made the fire burn with greater intensity for a few moments, but since the rocket motor had already burned, the extraction system did not pull Col. Jones from the aircraft. Despite searing pains from severe burns sustained on his arms, hands, neck, shoulders, and face, Col. Jones pulled his aircraft into a climb and attempted to transmit the location of the downed pilot and the enemy gun position to the other aircraft in the area. His calls were blocked by other aircraft transmissions repeatedly directing him to bail out and within seconds his transmitters were disabled and he could receive only on 1 channel. Completely disregarding his injuries, he elected to fly his crippled aircraft back to his base and pass on essential information for the rescue rather than bail out. Col. Jones successfully landed his heavily damaged aircraft and passed the information to a debriefing officer while on the operating table. As a result of his heroic actions and complete disregard for his personal safety, the downed pilot was rescued later in the day. Col. Jones' profound concern for his fellow man at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
1 SEPTEMBER 1939
At 0445 hours German forces invade Poland without a declaration of war.The operation is code named Fall Weiss (Plan White). The Germans allot 52 divisions for the invasion (some 1.5 million men), including the 6 armored divisions and all their motorized units. Of the divisions left to defend against an Anglo-French front, only about 10 are regarded by the Germans as being fit for any kind of action. General Brauchitsch, the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army, is in command of the campaign. Bock leads Army Group North, consisting of the 4th Army (Kuchler) and 3rd Army (Kluge); Rundstedt leads Army Group South, consisting of 8th Army (Balskowitz), 10th Army (Reichenau) and 14th Army (List). Air support comes from two Air Fleets, commanded by Kesselring and Lohr, which have around 1,600 aircraft. Army Group South, advancing from Silesia, is to provide the main German attacks. The 8th Army on the left is to move toward Poznan, the principal thrust is to be delivered by 10th Army which is to advance in the center to the Vistula River between Warsaw and Sandomierz, while 14th Army on the right moves toward Krakow and the Carpathian flank. The 4th Army from East Prussia is to move south toward Warsaw and the line to the Bug River to the east; 3rd Army is to cross the Polish Corridor and join 4th Army in moving south.
The Poles have 23 regular infantry divisions prepared with 7 more assembling, 1 weak armored division and an inadequate supply of artillery. They also have a considerable force of cavalry. The reserve units were only called up on August 30th and are not ready for combat. In the air, almost all the 500 Polish planes are obsolete and prove unable to blunt the impact of the German attack. During the day, the Luftwaffe launches air strikes on Warsaw, Lodz and Krakow. The Polish Commander in Chief, Marshal Rydz-Smigly, has deployed the stronger parts of his army in the northwestern half of the country, including large forces in the Poznan area and the Polish Corridor. He hopes to hold the Germans to only gradual gains. All along the front the superior training, equipment and strength of the Germans quickly brings them the advantage in the first battles. Many Polish units are overrun before their reinforcements from the reserve mobilization can arrive. At sea, as in the air, Polish technical inferiority leads to crushing early defeats. Three of the four Polish destroyers manage to leave for Britain before hostilities begin and later one submarine also escapes. On the first day the old pre-Dreadnought battleship, Schleswig-Holstein, bombards the Polish naval base at Westerplatte
1 SEPTEMBER 1983
THE SHOOTING DOWN OF KAL-007: Soviet jet fighters intercept
a Korean Airlines passenger flight in Russian airspace and shoot
the plane down, killing 269 passengers and crewmembers. The
incident dramatically increased tensions between the Soviet
Union and the United States. On September 1, 1983, Korean
Airlines (KAL) flight 007 was on the last leg of a flight from New
York City to Seoul, with a stopover in Anchorage, Alaska. As it
approached its final destination, the plane began to veer far
off its normal course. In just a short time, the plane flew into
Russian airspace and crossed over the Kamchatka Peninsula,
where some top-secret Soviet military installations were
known to be located. The Soviets sent two fighters to intercept
the plane. According to tapes of the conversations between the
fighter pilots and Soviet ground control, the fighters quickly
located the KAL flight and tried to make contact with the
passenger jet. Failing to receive a response, one of the fighters
fired a heat-seeking missile. KAL 007 was hit and plummeted
into the Sea of Japan. All 269 people on board were killed.
This was not the first time a South Korean flight had run into
trouble over Russia. In 1978, the Soviets forced a passenger jet down over Murmansk; two passengers were killed during the emergency landing. In its first public statement concerning the September 1983 incident, the Soviet government merely noted that an unidentified aircraft had been shot down flying over Russian territory. The United States government reacted with horror to the disaster. The Department of State suggested that the Soviets knew the plane was an unarmed civilian passenger aircraft. President Ronald Reagan called the incident a "massacre" and issued a statement in which he declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere." Five days after the incident, the Soviets admitted that the plane had indeed been a passenger jet, but that Russian pilots had no way of knowing this. A high ranking Soviet military official stated that the KAL flight had been involved in espionage activities. The Reagan administration responded by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets. Despite the heated public rhetoric, many Soviets and American officials and analysts privately agreed that the incident was simply a tragic misunderstanding. The KAL flight had veered into a course that was close to one being simultaneously flown by a U.S. spy plane; perhaps Soviet radar operators mistook the two. In the Soviet Union, several of the military officials responsible for air defense in the Far East were fired or demoted. It has never been determined how the KAL flight ended up nearly 200 miles off course.
1 SEPTEMBER 1862
Following his brilliant victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run
two days earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee strikes
retreating Union forces at Chantilly, Virginia, and drives them
away in the middle of an intense thunderstorm. Although his
army routed the Yankee forces of General John Pope at Bull
Run, Lee was not satisfied. By attacking the retreating Federals,
Lee hoped to push them back into Washington, D.C., and
achieve a decisive victory by destroying the Union army. The
Bull Run battlefield lay 25 miles east of the capital, allowing
Lee room to send General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's
corps on a quick march to cut off part of the Union retreat
before reaching the defenses of the capital. Jackson departed
with his corps on August 31. Using General J.E.B. Stuart's Rebel
cavalry as a screen, he swung north and then east toward
Washington. Under orders of Union General-in-Chief Henry
Halleck, Pope tried to hold the town of Centerville from the
advancing Confederates. Jackson moved north around
Centerville, placing the bulk of Pope's force in grave danger
as the Southerners moved towards Fairfax.
By the afternoon of September 1, Pope evacuated Centerville and Jackson pressed to the north of the main Yankee army. Late in the afternoon, a Union division commanded by General Isaac Stevens attacked Jackson near Chantilly. In a driving rainstorm punctuated by thunder and lightning, Stevens's men drove into the Confederates and scattered a Louisiana brigade. But after Stevens was struck in the head by a Rebel bullet and killed, Jackson's men drove the Union troops back. Another Yankee general, Philip Kearney, was killed when he accidentally rode behind the Confederate line in the storm. The battle was over within 90 minutes, although the storm persisted. Confederate casualties numbered about 500, while the Union lost 700. Lee could not flank Pope's army, so he turned his army northward for an invasion of Maryland. The result was the Battle of Antietam on September 17. [pictured: Robert E. Lee]
◆891 Battle of Louvain: East Franks defeat the Danish Vikings.
◆1285 Naval Battle of Las Rosas: Catalans defeat the French.
◆1597 Battle of Longpre: French defeat the Spanish.
◆1644 Battle of Tippermuir: Montrose's Roundheads defeat the Scots Covenanters.
◆1676 Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon's Rebellion came in response to the governor's repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians.
◆1701 Battle of Chiari: Imperialists defeat the French.
◆1752 The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia.
◆1772 Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa formed in California. Father Junipero Serra held the 1st Mass at San Luis Obispo. He left Father Jose Cavalier the task of building the state’s 5th mission.
◆1774 Boston: British seize Massachusetts Bay Colony's store of powder & cannon.
◆1781 -French fleet traps British fleet at Yorktown, VA.
◆1807 Former U.S. vice president Aaron Burr is acquitted of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Spanish territory in Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic.
◆1821 William Becknell led a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
◆1838 William Clark (68), 2nd lt. of Lewis and Clark Expedition, died.
◆1848 Royal troops begin bombardment of Messina, Sicily (surrenders the 7th).
◆1849 California Constitutional Convention was held in Monterey.
◆1858 The 1st transatlantic cable failed after less than 1 month.
◆1861 Ulysses Grant assumed command of Federal forces at Cape Girardeau, MI.
◆1862 Following his brilliant victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run two days earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee strikes retreating Union forces at Chantilly, Virginia, and drives them away in the middle of an intense thunderstorm.★
◆1863 6th Ohio Cavalry ambush at Barbees Crossroads, Virginia.
◆1863 Union fleet bombards Fort Sumter.
◆1864 With Union General William T. Sherman threatening to cut his only escape route, Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuates Atlanta, Georgia, at the climax of a four-month campaign by Sherman to capture the vital Rebel supply center.
◆1864 2nd day of battle at Jonesboro, Georgia, left some 3,000 casualties.
◆1864 Battle of Petersburg, VA.
◆1866 Manuelito, the last Navaho chief, turned himself in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.
◆1870 Napoleon III surrenders himself and his army to the Prussians at Sedan.
◆1916 Bulgaria declares war on Romania.
◆1918 US troops landed in Vladivostok, Siberia, and stayed until 1920.
◆1925 Navy CDR John Rodgers and crew of 4 in PN-9 run out of fuel on first San Francisco to Hawaii flight. Landing at sea, they rigged a sail and set sail for Hawaii.
◆1939 At 0445 hours German forces invade Poland without a declaration of war.The operation is code named Fall Weiss (Plan White). The Germans allot 52 divisions for the invasion (some 1.5 million men), including the 6 armored divisions and all their motorized units.★
◆1940 Gen. George Marshall was sworn in as chief of staff of US army.
◆1941 U.S. assumes responsibility for trans-Atlantic convoys from Argentia, Canada to the meridian of Iceland. The US Atlantic Fleet announces the formation of the Denmark Strait Patrol. Two heavy cruisers and four destroyers are allocated for to the force. The US Navy is now permitted to escort convoys in the Atlantic containing American merchant vessels.
◆1942 Establishment of Air Force, Pacific Fleet, VADM Aubrey W. Fitch, USN.
◆1942 First Seabee unit to serve in a combat area, 6th Naval Construction Battalion, arrives on Guadalcanal.
◆1942 A federal judge in Sacramento, Calif., upheld the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
◆1943 US forces land on Baker Island and build an air strip within a week. This action is to support the campaign in the Gilbert Islands.
◆1943 On Vella Lavella the US force reaches Orete Cove.
◆1944 General Eisenhower establishes his headquarters in France as Commander in Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Forces. The forces of US 12th Army Group continue as well. US 1st Army approaches St. Quentin and Cambrai. The US 3rd Army captures Verdun and Comercy.
◆1944 French forces of US 7th Army capture Narbonne and St. Agreve.
◆1945 Americans received word of Japan's formal surrender that ended World War II. Because of the time difference, it was Sept. 2 in Tokyo Bay, where the ceremony took place.
◆1945 General MacArthur ends military rule, which has been in force since the American landings on Leyte, because the Philippine government has been re-established and is functioning normally. Control of all areas reverts to the Philippine commonwealth.
◆1945 USS Benevolence (AH-13) evacuates civilian internees from 2 internment camps near Tokyo, Japan.
◆1950 US Company C, 1st Battalion of the 23rd Infantry Regiment, was almost completely annihilated as North Korean divisions opened an assault on UN lines on the Naktong River. Only Company C and other elements of the 2nd Infantry Division stood in the path.
◆1950 US Air Force Captain Iven C. Kincheloe, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, claimed his fifth air-to-air victory in his F-86 Sabre "Ivan" to become the 10th ace of the Korean War. Kincheloe accounted for four MiGs in six days.
◆1950 U.S. Navy Lieutenant Eugene F. Clark was put ashore at Yonghung-do to command an operation to gather intelligence for the impending amphibious assault at Inchon.
◆1951 At the Presidio in San Francisco, the US, Australia, and New Zealand signed the Anzus Pact, a joint security alliance to govern their relations.
◆1961 The Soviet Union ended a moratorium on atomic testing with an above-ground nuclear explosion in central Asia.
◆1969 A coup in Libya overthrew the monarchy of King Idris and brought Moammar Gadhafi (27) to power. Gadhafi emerged as leader of the revolutionary government and ordered the closure of a U.S. Air Force base.
◆1969 The 1st Marine Regiment was presented the Presidential Unit Citation for Operation Hue City (Vietnam).
◆1976 NASA launched its space vehicle S-197.
◆1977 The 1st TRS-80 Model I computer was sold.
◆1979 Pioneer 11 made the 1st fly-by of Saturn and discovered new moon rings. Ring F of Saturn was discovered by Lonny Baker at NASA's Ames Research Center from data sent by Pioneer 11.
◆1983 Soviet jet fighters intercept a Korean Airlines passenger flight in Russian airspace and shoot the plane down, killing 269 passengers and crewmembers.★
◆1993 The Pentagon unveiled a five-year defense plan to further shrink the U.S. military in favor of a lean, high-tech force.
◆1997 In Bosnia several hundred Bosnian Serbs attacked some 300 armed US troops in an effort to take back a key TV transmitter that was seized by the Americans last week. The melee was a standoff.
◆2004 The U.N. atomic watchdog agency said Iran has announced plans to turn tons of uranium into a substance that can be used to make nuclear weapons.